1G ~ First generation wireless telecommunications networks were launched in the 1980s with the capability of sending text messages and enabling voice calls via car phones, but mobile phones needed to be powered by a car battery or other large battery, and were quite large. Remember pagers? The analog signals were modulated up to 150 MHz and up.
2G ~ Second generation wireless tele-communications. After 2G was launched, the previous mobile wireless network systems were retroactively dubbed 1G. While radio signals on 1G networks are analog, radio signals on 2G networks are digital. 2G enabled sending/receiving digital photos / images. These signals used the 450 MHz band.
3G ~ Third generation wireless telecommunications technology enabled internet access, video call capability, and downloading video / TV programming. CDMA systems commonly used 2,100 MHz band, with some using 900 or 1,900 MHz. Not sure what band was used by GSM systems.
4G ~ Fourth generation wireless telecommunications technology enabled faster streaming of video / TV programming, IP telephony, gaming services, video conferencing, high-definition mobile TV, and 3D television. Frequency bands used range from 700 MHz to 2,600 MHz. In Australia, the 700 MHz band was previously used for analogue television and became operational with 4G in December 2014. The 850 MHz band is currently operated as a 3G network by Telstra and as a 4G network by Vodafone in Australia.
4G LTE ~
5G ~ Fifth generation wireless telecommunications technology jumps up in freqency range from microwaves to millimeter waves — from 2.5 GHz to a minimum of 24 GHz, with plans to expand up to 72 GHz. These frequency bands are in an entirely different range of the electromagnetic spectrum. 5G frequencies will not be transmitted wirelessly end-to-end because they do not travel far, so they will travel most of the way on upgraded 4G infrastructure and fiber-optic networks and then the endpoints of sending and receiving are intended to be high-speed wireless. See also: beam-forming, phased array, MIMO.
3GPP ~ 3rd Generation Partnership Project. An organization that sets the standards for all wireless technology. In June 2018, they released specifications for 5G, both on the ground and in space.
acute radiation syndrome ~ Exposure to large doses of radiation over a short period of time produces a group of symptoms known as acute radiation syndrome. These symptoms include general malaise, nausea, and vomiting, followed by a period of remission of symptoms. Later, the patient develops more severe symptoms such as fever, hemorrhage, fluid loss, anemia, and central nervous system involvement. The symptoms then gradually subside or become more severe, and may lead to death.
ADA ~ US Americans with Disabilities Act
AI ~ artificial intelligence
backhaul ~ Cargo or freight that is transported on the return trip of a journey. In electricity grids, a customer whose solar panels generate more electricity than is used overflows their extra power back into the electric grid for use elsewhere. In wireless telecommunications, backhaul is the wireless communication and network infrastructure responsible for transporting communication data from end users or nodes to the central network or infrastructure and vice versa. It is the intermediate wireless communication infrastructure that connects smaller networks with the backbone or the primary network. Distributed data nodes are supposed to decode data only in the fronthaul direction to deliver to intended recipients.
baseband ~ the protocol does not use a tone or frequency band for signaling (as do FAX and modems), but rather a changing voltage level signaling/coding method such as pulse amplitude modulation (PAM).
beam-forming ~ a feature of active antennas that allows them to triangulate (or multi-angulate) the geo-location of a cell-phone or other target device to send the signal directly to the target device in a focused beam rather than a wide-field transmission, continuously re-checking the geo-location to track any device that is moving and re-orient the focused beam transmission to the current location of the target device. Current deployments of beam-forming technology radiate side-beams around the main beam, generating microwave radiation in roughly this sort of pattern, in three dimensions:
biologically-based exposure limits ~ The BioInitiative Report 2012 examines 67 peer-reviewed research papers and research studies to establish scientifically-based public health guidelines for exposure limits to radio-frequency microwave radiation.
Cal-OSHA ~ California Occupational Safety and Health Administration. California guidelines are generally equal to or more stringent than US federal OSHA guidelines.
CDC ~ US Center for Disease Control
CDMA ~ a form of pulse-modulation used to piggy-back data onto a radio-frequency microwave to achieve wireless voice and data transmission
CPMRAs ~ Close Proximity Microwave Radiation Antennas (Small Cells)
CPNI ~ Customer Proprietary Network Information (customer data and metadata)
cross-subsidize ~ When corporations such as Verizon and AT&T, which own and control both wired and wireless divisions within their multiple business ventures, fail to keep the profits and losses of the wired and wireless divisions on completely separate accounting systems. Wired services are public infrastructure, and as evidenced by taxes and fees added to the bills, the customers pay for a portion of maintaining and upgrading the infrastructure, which is therefore required by law to be provided to everyone who wants the service. Wireless services are unregulated, meaning corporations can charge any fees they choose, and are not (intended to be) subsidized by taxpayers as necessary infrastructure. By way of fraudulent accounting practices, expenses incurred by wireless divisions are reported as expenses of wired divisions so that the regulated divisions will report end-of-year losses, pay lower taxes, and be granted further subsidies. This has been going on for years, and the funds from local communities that were intended to subsidize build-out of fiber-optic and cable infrastructure in public rights-of-way have instead subsidized build-out of wireless services, which because they are unregulated, are the more profitable of the divisions. See the Irregulators lawsuit.
CTIA ~ Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association
dirty electricity ~
DOCSIS ~ data over cable service interface specification, a technical transmission standard for carrying digital data traffic within coaxial cable wire on a portion of the spectrum not being used by analog TV.
DSL ~ digital subscriber line, a technology to deliver internet access via telephone landline wiring
effective radiated power ~ the best way to measure small or macro cell tower radiation. Maximum Input Power (in Watts) × Antenna-Gain (a unitless fraction, dBi) = Maximum Effective Radiated Power (in Watts ERP). See this page for an excellent discussion of effective radiated power.
electromagnetic field ~ Any time electricity travels along a cable or nerve, an electromagnetic field is generated perpendicular to the path of the current. See this page for explanation and diagrams.
electromagnetic sensitivity ~ this term is preferred over “radiation sickness” for legal or legislative purposes because it has been recognized as a diagnosis qualifying for the Americans with Disabilities Act.
electromagnetic spectrum ~ Frequencies of electromagnetic radiation can be measured from ??? at the low end to 10to the 25th power at the high end. The spectrum is divided into different bands, from magnetic waves at the low end, then radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays at the high end. See this page for diagrams and more details.
electrosmog ~ wireless radiation pollution
ELF ~ Extremely Low Frequency
EMF ~ electro-magnetic field, not electro-magnetic frequency
EMR ~ electro-magnetic microwave radiation
EPA ~ Environmental Protection Agency
ethernet cables ~ A twisted-pair copper cable usually used at endpoints in networks from a home or office router to individual devices for faster and more secure internet connections than wireless transmission, with far lower levels of radiation. Category 5 cables are called Cat 5, and are adequate for 3G speeds. Cat 6, Cat 7, and Cat 8 cables are available, with each category improving on transmission speed and capacity.
FCC ~ United States Federal Communications Commission
FCC Guidelines ~ Telecommunications Industry limits for EMF radiation exposure. The guidelines in the USA and most of Western Europe are the highest in the world, and therefore the least protective. There are thousands of studies showing biological harm at dose-exposure levels far below the FCC guidelines. The guidelines were arrived at by dismissing any effects of EMF microwave radiation other than thermal heating, and are presented in terms of thermal heating. Claims that the FCC guidelines represent safety limits are false, and it has been proven that such claims are based on fraudulent science. Click here for a chart comparing guidelines of various countries to dose-exposure levels proven through peer-reviewed studies to result in biological damage.
FDA ~ US Food and Drug Administration; the agency tasked with regulating safety of foods, drugs, and cosmetics.
fiber-optic cables ~ an assembly similar to an electrical cable, but containing one or more glass optical fibers that are used to carry light. The optical fiber elements are typically individually coated with plastic layers and contained in a protective tube suitable for the environment where the cable will be deployed. Different types of cable are used for different applications, for example, long distance telecommunication, or providing a high-speed data connection between different parts of a building.
FTTH ~ Fiber to the Home
GSM ~ a form of pulse-modulation used to piggy-back data onto a radio-frequency microwave to achieve wireless voice and data transmission
HAARP ~ High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) was initiated as an ionospheric research program jointly funded by the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Navy, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It was designed and built by BAE Advanced Technologies (BAEAT). Its original purpose was to analyze the ionosphere and investigate the potential for developing ionospheric enhancement technology for radio communications and surveillance. As a university-owned facility, HAARP is a high-power, high-frequency transmitter used for study of the ionosphere.
IARC ~ The World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer
ICES ~ International Committee on Electric Safety ~ sets exposure limits for RF energy.
ICNIRP ~ International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. The organization’s activities include determining exposure limits for electromagnetic fields generated by cell phones, 3G, 4G, 5G, WiFi, AM radio, DAB radio, etc. ICNIRP pretends to be scientifically neutral, and free from vested interests of the Telecom industry. “We show with this study that this is ‘playing with the truth’ or simply a lie.”
IEEE ~ Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Internet of Things (IoT) ~ Wikipedia: A system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction. Yes, it really says animals and people will have UIDs.
ionizing radiation ~ There is a false dichotomy between ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. The standard definition of ionizing radiation is electro-magnetic radiation of a short enough wavelength and high enough frequency that even short-term exposure breaks up molecules (breaks ions off of molecules) and breaks up DNA. The difference between ionizing and non-ionizing radiation is more about marketing than science; there is not a hard line but rather a continuum between shorter and longer wavelenths, and longer “non-ionizing” radiation wavelenths will also eventually break up molecules and cause DNA damage.
IoT ~ see Internet of Things
MIMO ~ massive inputs and massive outputs.
microwave radiation ~
millimeter wave radiation ~
modulation ~ a method of manipulating an electromagnetic transmission so as to encode data into the transmission. GSM and CDMA are two types of modulation used for wireless telecommunication.
native electromagnetic radiation ~ All living things on this planet (humans, animals, plants, microbes) are continuously exposed to a low level of cosmic radiation from our sun that is not filtered out by our atmosphere, as well as the Schumann resonance (see also) emitting from our earth itself. All living things are in harmony with these native forms of radiation, and require connection to our sun and earth for health.
NIH ~ US National Institutes of Health. The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) reports to the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), which is one of 27 Institutes in the US National Institutes of Health (NIH).
NIOSH ~ USA National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
non-ionizing radiation ~ There is a false dichotomy between ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Statements by regulatory agencies that non-ionizing radiation is not harmful to people or planet are more about marketing than science. In truth, there is a continuum in which shorter wavelengths will break ions off of atoms and molecules more quickly than longer wavelengths, but all wavelengths of radiation can cause biological harm. Non-ionizing radiation does not immediately break up molecules or DNA with short-term exposure; at lower frequencies, much longer exposures are required before ions break off of molecules, or DNA damage becomes apparent. However, voltage-gated calcium channels (see also VGCC) malfunction with very low levels of radiation. Standard definitions of non-ionizing radiation include sound, ultraviolet, visible and infrared light, microwaves, and radiowaves. See also ionizing radiation. See also electromagnetic spectrum.
non-native electromagnetic radiation ~ All forms of radiation emitted by man-made technologies are non-native to our planet. See also: native electromagnetic radiation.
NTIA ~ National Telecommunications and Information Administration, a division of the United States Department of Commerce.
NTP ~ The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) reports to the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), which is one of 27 Institutes in the US National Institutes of Health (NIH).
ONT ~ Optical Network Terminal, generally in the customer’s home or office
OSHA ~ US Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OTARD ~ Over The Air Reception Devices
PAM ~ pulse amplitude modulation
phased array ~
POF ~ Plastic Optical Fiber
PON ~ Passive Optical Network
premises gateway ~ technology which allows anyone to control what data comes into and leaves their home
privacy ~ being free from being observed or disturbed. Compare security.
public commons ~ basic infrastructure funded by and belonging to the people of a community, such as streets, traffic lights, water, sewers, emergency services, and in some communities, also including electricity services and public transportation.
pulse modulation ~
radiation health hazards ~ Harmful effects of radiation include serious disturbances of bone marrow and other blood-forming organs, burns, and sterility. There may be permanent damage to genes, which results in genetic mutations. The mutations can be transmitted to future generations. Radiation also may produce harmful effects on the embryo or fetus, bringing about fetal death or malformations. Long-term studies of groups of persons exposed to radiation have shown that radiation acts as a carcinogen; that is, it can produce cancer, especially leukemia. It also may predispose persons to the development of cataracts. These are only a few of hundreds of documented biological effects of long-term exposure to low-frequency radiation, or short-term exposure to high-frequency radiation. See also radiation sickness.
radiation sickness ~ see electromagnetic sensitivity and acute radiation syndrome.
RFR ~ radio-frequency radiation
SAR ~ Specific Absorption Rate. This is a fraudulent way to measure effects of radio-frequency microwave radiation. Without the exposure time, you cannot calculate the total dose exposure. ment of thermal heating, and does not take into account cellular and DNA damage caused by microwave radiation.
Schumann Frequency ~ In 1952, WO Schumann identified 7.83 Hz as the resonant frequency of our planet earth.
security ~ being free from danger or threat. Compare privacy.
VGCC ~ Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels. These channels function like gatekeepers in every cell membrane of all mammals. Birds, fish, and plants also have VGCCs. VGCCs allow calcium to move in or out of cells through the membrane based on electrical signaling. There are 10 different types of voltage-gated calcium channels in mammals that all serve distinct roles. Some of these are very important for the homeostasis and balance of the human body, such as heart-rate regulation via the electrical potential at the sino-atrial node, neuronal excitability, neurotransmitter release, endocrine responses, hormone release, and gene expression. The research of Dr Martin Pall has revealed how RF microwave radiation affects VGCCs at levels much lower than safety guidelines. This four-page letter from Dr Pall is an excellent overview of the mechanism of biological damage. This 90-page book describes mechanism of biological damage in more detail.
VOIP ~ voice over internet processing, a technology that allows voice calls and texts to be sent and received via the internet instead of via landline telephone wires or wireless telecommunications systems.
WIA ~ Wireless Infrastructure Association
WHO ~ United Nations World Health Organization.
WTF ~ wireless telecommunications facility, including large (macro) cell towers and small cells