Curated Lists of Peer-Reviewed Research Studies
These curated lists select from thousands of peer-reviewed research studies and reviews of research studies in specific categories. Scroll down for links to more extensive databases containing thousands of peer-reviewed studies.
Environmental Health Trust has an excellent compilation of Peer-Reviewed Scientific Papers in several categories. Hover over their main Science tab to see more categories.
- Telecom Industry Influence on Peer-Reviewed EMF Radiation Science
- Overview of Science on Health Effects of EMR
(Scroll down on this page to see studies in each of the categories below)
- Increased Cancers
- Effects on Fertility and Reproduction
- Neurotoxic Effects
- Impaired Cognition and Memory
- Behavioral Issues
- Hearing Loss
- Sleep Issues
- Oxidative Stress
- Genotoxic Effects
- Endocrine System Damage
- Disruptions to Heart Functioning
- Metal, Braces, Earrings, and Hip Replacements
- Synergistic Effect Between Electromagnetic Fields and Toxic Exposures
- Key Research Reviews
- Exposure Assessments and Vulnerability of the Child or Fetus
- Recent Studies on 5G
- Key Scientific Lectures
- Science for Skeptics
5GCrisis.com Lists 190 of the Most Recent Peer-Reviewed Studies, Presented in These Categories:
Joel M. Moskowitz, PhD is the Director of the Centor for Family and Community Health at the School of Public Health at University of California, Berkeley. He oversees the publication of the Electromagnetic Radiation Safety (SaferEMR.com) website, which contains numerous studies and articles about the health hazards of electromagnetic radiation. Dr Moskowitz has published an Annotated Bibliography of Scientific Papers Finding Evidence of harm from Cell Phone Radiation Exposure, Published Between August 2016 and July 2018. The pdf file is 90 pages long, divided into these categories:
- Review papers
- Human (in vivo) studies
- Human cell sample (in vitro) studies
- Live (in vivo) animal studies
- Animal cell sample (in vitro) studies
PowerWatch has published a curated list (pdf) of 1,670 Peer-Reviewed Papers on Electromagnetic Fields and Biology or Health. This list is a compilation of citations about electromagnetic fields (EMF) published in scientific journals from 1979 through 2018. This is not a comprehensive list of studies. PowerWatch selected these studies from their internal database of 15,000 (approx.) scientific papers, most of which address EMF. This curated list of studies is organized into the following categories:
- Mobile and cordless phones (525 papers)
- Mobile phone masts (94 papers)
- WiFi (38 papers)
- Radio Transmitters (43 papers)
- Powerline Frequencies (333 papers)
- Electrical Sensitivity (88 papers)
- EEG and Brain Responses (53 papers)
- Radiofrequency EMF Mechanisms (251 papers)
- Powerfrequency EMF Mechanisms (256 papers)
Effects of Wireless Radiation on Male Fertility
This selection of studies can be found on the Dad Prep page of The BabySafe Project. The effects include:
- Changes to the structure and function of the testes
- Lowered sperm count
- Lowered sperm motility
- Lowered sperm quality (DNA damage)
- Sperm apoptosis (cell death)
- Long-Term Exposure to 4G Smartphone Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation Diminished Male Reproductive Portential by Directly Disrupting Spck3-MMP2-BTB Axis in the Testes of Adult Rats. Yu, G., et al. Science of The Total Environment 698 (2020).
- Radiations and Male Fertility. Kesari, K., Agarwal, A. and Henkel, R. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 16(118) (2018).
- The Effect of 2.45 GHz Non-Ionizing Radiation on the Structure and Ultrastructure of The Testis in Juvenile Rats. Šimaiová, V., et al. Histology and Histopathology 34(4):391-403 (2018).
- Modulatory Effect of 900 MHz Radiation on Biochemical and Reproductive Parameters in Rats. Narayanan, SN., et al. Bratislava Medical Journal 119(9):581-587 (2018).
- Aloe Arborescens Juice Prevents EMF-Induced Oxidative Stress and Thus Protects from Pathophysiology in the Male Reproductive System In Vitro. Solek, P., Majchrowics, L., and Koziorowski, M. Environmental Research 166:141-149 (2018).
- Effects of Electromagnetic Waves Emitted from 3G+ Wi-Fi Modems on Human Semen Analysis. Kamali, K., et al. Urologia 14.0 (2017).
- The Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Sperm Function. Houston, Nixon, et al. Reproduction 152(6):263-276 (2016).
- Male Fertility and its Association with Occupational and Mobile Phone Tower Hazards: An Analytical Study. Al-Quzwini, Al-Taee, et al. Middle East Fertility Society Journal (2016).
- Sperm DNA Damage – The Effect of Stress and Everyday Life Factors. Radwan, M., et al. International Journal of Impotence Research 28(4):148-154 (2016).
- Electromagnetic Radiation at 900 MHz Induces Sperm Apoptosis through bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 Signaling Pathways in Rats. Liu, Si, et al. Journal of Reproductive Health 12:65 (2015).
- Habits of Cell Phone usage and Sperm Quality – Does It Warrant Attention? Zilverlight, Wiener-Megnazi, et al. Reproductive BioMedicine Online 31(3):421-426 (2015).
- 2.45 GHz Microwave Irradiation Adversely Affects Reproductive Function in Male Mouse, Mus musculus by Inducing Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress. Shahin, S., et al. Free Radical Research 48(5): 511-525 (2014).
- Effect of Mobile Telephones on Sperm Quality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Adams, J., et al. Environment International 80: 106:112 (2014).
- Extremely Low frequency Magnetic Fields Induce Spermatogenic Germ Cell Apoptosis: Possible Mechanism. Lee, Park, et al. BioMed Research International 2014(2014): 567183 (2014).
- In Vitro Effect of Cell Phone Radiation on Motility, DNA Fragmentation and Clusterin Gene Expression in Human Sperm. Zalata, El-Samanoudy, et al. International Journal of Fertility and Sterility 9(1):129-136 (2014).
- The Effects of Cell Phone Waves (900 MHz-GSM Band) on Sperm Parameters and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Rats. Ghanbari, M. International Journal of Fertility and Sterility 7(1), 21-8 (2013).
- Immunohistopathologic Demonstration of Deleterious Effects on Growing Rat Testes of Radiofrequency Waves Emitted from Conventional Wi-Fi Devices. Atasoy, H., et al. Journal of Pediatric Urology. 9(2):223-229 (2013).
- Effect of Electromagnetic Field Exposure on the Reproductive System. Gye and Park. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine 39(1):1-19 (2012).
- Effects of the Exposure of Mobile Phones on Male Reproduction: A Review of the Literature. Vignera, Condorelli, et al. Journal of Andrology 33(3):350-356 (2012).
- Use of Laptop Computers Connected to Internet Trhough Wi-Fi Decreases Human Sperm Motility and Increases Sperm DNA Fragmentation. Avendano, C., et al. Fertility and Sterility 97(1):39-45 (2012).
- Effects of Radiofrequency Electro Magnetic Waves (RFEMW) From Cellular Phones on Human Ejaculated Semen: An In Vitro Pilot Study. Agarwal, A., et al. Fertil Steril 4:1318-1325 (2009).
- Exposure to Magnetic fields and the Risk of Poor Sperm Quality. Li, Yan, et al. Journal of Reproductive Toxicology 29(1):86-92 (2009).
- Mobile Phone Radiation Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Production and DNA Damage in Human Spermatozoa In Vitro. Luliis, Newey, et al. PLoS ONE 4(7) (2009).
- Pathophysiology of Cell Phone Radiation: Oxidative Stress and Carcinogenesis with Focus on Male Reproductive System. Desai, N., Kesari, K., and Agarwal, A. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 7: 114 (2009).
- Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation (Rf-EMR) from GSM Mobile Phones Induces Oxidative Stress and Reduces Sperm Motility in Rats. Mailankot, Kunnath, et al. Clinical Science 64(6):561-5 (2009).
- Cell Phones: Modern Man’s Nemesis? Makker, Varghese, et al. Reproductive BioMedicine Online 18(1):148-157 (2008).
- Indicative SAR Levels Due to an Active Mobile Phone in a Front Trouser Pocket in Proximity to Common Metallic Objects. Whittow, Panagamuwa, et al. Propagation Conference 149-152 (2008).
- Cell Phones and Male Infertility: Dissecting the Relationship. Deepinder, Makker, et al. Reproductive BioMedicine Online 15(3):266-270 (2007).
- Evaluation of the Effect of Using Mobile Phones on Male Fertility. Wdowiak, Wiktor, et al. Annals of Agricultural and Medicine14(1):169-172 (2007).
- Effect of Cell Phone Usage on Semen Analysis in Men Attending Infertility Clinic: An Observational Study. Agarwal, Deepinder, et al. American Society for Reproductive Medicine 89(1):124-8 (2008).
Effects on Offspring / Unborn Babies when Pregnant Mothers were Exposed to Wireless Radiation
This selection of studies can be found on the Science page at The BabySafe Project. A few of the effects of wireless radiation on unborn babies include:
- Damage to and destruction of brain cells; DNA breaks in brain cells
- Damage to the parts of the brain involved in memory and learning
- Damage to neurons in the prefrontal cortex
- Higher risk of behavioral problems and hyperactivity
- Effects on liver and kidney
- Damage to spinal cord
- Cranial and post-cranial skeletal variations
- Miscarriage / Spontaneous Abortion
- Association Between Maternal Exposure to Magnetic Field Nonionizing Radiation During Pregnancy and Risk of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Offspring in a Longitudinal Birth Cohort. Li, D. et al. Jama Netw Open. 3(3) e201417 (2020).
- Comparison of Effects of 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi and Mobile Phone Exposure on Human Placenta and Cord Blood. Bektas., et al. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment. 34(1), 154-162 (2020).
- Mother’s Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields Before and During Pregnancy is Associated with Risk of Speech Problems in Offspring. Zarei, S., et al. Journal of Biomedical Physics and Engineering 9(1):61-68 (2019).
- Prenatal Exposure to Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Field and Its Impact on Fetal Growth. Ren, Y., et al. Environmental Health (2019).
- The Effects of Radiofrequency Radiation on Mice Fetus Weight, Length and Tissues. Alimohammadi, O., et al. Data in Brief 19:2189-2194 (2018).
- Effects of Prenatal Exposure to WiFi Signal (2.45 GHz) on Postnatal Development and Behavior in Rat: Influence of Maternal Restraint. Othman, H., et al. Behavioral Brain Research 326: 291-301 (2017).
- Maternal Cell Phone Use During Pregnancy and Child Behavioral Problems in Five Birth Cohorts. Birks, Guxens, et al. Environment International (2017).
- Exposure to Magnetic Field Non-Ionizing Radiation and the Risk of Miscarriage: A Prospective Cohort Study. Li, De-Kun, et al. Scientific Reports (2017).
- Postnatal Development and Behavior Effects of In-Utero Exposure of Rats to Radiofrequency Waves Emitted From Conventional WiFi Devices. Othman, H., et al. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 52:239-247 (2017).
- Lasting Hepatotoxic Effects of Prenatal Mobile Phone Exposure. Yilmaz, A., et al. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine 30(11): 1355-1359 (2017).
- Multiple Assessment Methods of Prenatal Exposure to Radio Frequency Radiation from Telecommunication in the Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health (MOCEH) Study. Choi, Ha, et al. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health 29(6):959-972 (2016).
- The Use of Signal-Transduction and Metabolic Pathways to Predict Human Disease Targets from Electric and Magnetic Fields Using in vitro Data in Human Cell Lines. Parham, F., et al. Frontiers in Public Health (2016).
- Oxidative mechanisms of biological activity of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation. Yakymenko, et al. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 34(3):1-16 (2015).
- The effect of exposure of rats during prenatal period to radiation spreading from mobile phones on renal development. Bedir, et al. Renal Failure 37(2):305-9 (2015).
- Effects of prenatal 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposures on the histology of rat kidney. Ulubay, et al. International Journal of Radiation Biology 91(1):35-41 (2015).
- Oxidative Stress of Brain and Liver is Increased by Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) Exposure of Rats During Pregnancy and the Development of Newborns. Çelik, Ömer, et al. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 75(B):134-139 (2015).
- Neurodegenerative Changes and Apoptosis Induced by Intrauterine and Extrauterine Exposure of Radiofrequency Radiation. Güler, Göknur, et al. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 75(B):128-133 (2015).
- Maternal Exposure to a Continuous 900-MHz Electromagnetic Field Provokes Neuronal Loss and Pathological Changes in Cerebellum of 32-Day-Old Female Rat Offspring. Odaci, Ersan, et al. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 75(B):105-110 (2015).
- Different Periods of Intrauterine Exposure to Electromagnetic Field: Influence on Female Rats’ Fertility, Prenatal and Postnatal Development. Alchalabi, Aklilu, et al. Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction 5(1):14-23 (2015).
- Use of Mobile Phone During Pregnancy and the Risk of Spontaneous Abortion. Mahmoudabadi, Ziaei, et al. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering 13:34 (2015).
- Autism-relevant social abnormalities in mice exposed perinatally to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. Alsaeed, et al. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 37:58-6 (2014).
- Influence of pregnancy stage and fetus position on the whole-body and local exposure of the fetus to RF-EMF. Varsier, et al. Physics in Medicine and Biology 59(17):4913-26 (2014).
- Dosimetric study of fetal exposure to uniform magnetic fields at 50 Hz. Liorni et al. Bioelectromagnetics 35(8):580-97 (2014).
- State of the reproductive system in male rats of 1st generation obtained from irradiated parents and exposed to electromagnetic radiation (897 MHz) during embryogenesis and postnatal development. Radiats Biol Radioecol 54(2):186-92 (2014).
- Pyramidal Cell Loss in the Cornu Ammonis of 32-day-old Female Rats Following Exposure to a 900 Megahertz Electromagnetic Field During Prenatal Days 13–21. Bas, et al. NeuroQuantology Volume 11, Issue 4: 591-599 (2013).
- The Effects of 900 Megahertz Electromagnetic Field Applied in the Prenatal Period on Spinal Cord Morphology and Motor Behavior in Female Rat Pups. Odaci, et al. NeuroQuantology Volume 11, Issue 4: 573-581 (2013).
- Fetal Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure from 800-1900 mhz-rated Cellular Telephones Affects Neurodevelopment and Behavior in Mice. Aldad, et al. Science Reports 2:312 (2012).
- Cranial and Postcranial Skeletal Variations Induced in Mouse Embryos by Mobile Phone Radiation. Fragopoulou, Koussoulakos, et al. Pathophysiology 17(3):169-77 (2010).
- Stress Signalling Pathways that Impair Prefrontal Cortex Structure and Function. Arnsten, A. F. National Review of Neuroscience 10, 410–22 (2009).
- 900-MHz Microwave Radiation Enhances Gamma-ray Adverse Effects on SHG44 Cells. Cao, et al. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A. 72, 727–32 (2009).
- Age-Dependent Effect of Prenatal Stress on Hippocampal Cell Proliferation in Female Rats. Koehl et al. European Journal of Neuroscience 29 635–40 (2009).
- Dysbindin Modulates Prefrontal Cortical Glutamatergic Circuits and Working Memory Function in Mice. Jentsch, et al Neuropsychopharmacology 34, 2601–8 (2009).
- Maternal Occupational Exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields and the Risk of Brain Cancer in the Offspring. Li, Mclaughlin, et al. Cancer Causes & Control 20(6):945-55 (2009).
- Reproductive and Developmental Effects of EMF in Vertebrate Animal Models. Pourlis, A.F. Pathophysiology 16(2-3):179-89 (2009).
- Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Cell Phone Use and Behavioral Problems in Children. Divan, et al. Epidemiology 19: 523-529 (2008).
- Effects of Prenatal Exposure to a 900 MHz Electromagnetic Field on the Dentate Gyrus of Rats: A Stereological and Histopathological Study. Odaci, et al. Brain Research 1238: 224–229 (2008).
- Exposure to Cell Phone Radiation Up-Regulates Apoptosis Genes in Primary Cultures of Neurons and Astrocytes. Zhao, et al. Science Digest 412: 34–38 (2007).
- Cell Death Induced by GSM 900-MHz and DCS 1800-MHz Mobile Telephony Radiation. Panagopoulos, et al. Mutation Research 626, 69–78 (2007).
- Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Overview of the Etiology and a Review of the Literature Relating to the Correlates and Lifecourse Outcomes for Men and Women. Brassett-Harknett, A. & Butler, N. Clinical Psychology Review 27,188–210 (2007).
- Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Biederman, J. & Faraone, S. V. Lancet 366, 237–248 (2005)
- Acute Exposure to 930 MHz CW Electromagnetic Radiation In Vitro Affects Reactive Oxygen Species Level in Rat Lymphocytes Treated by Iron Ions. Zmyślony, et al. Bioelectromagnetics 25, 324–8 (2004).
- Cortical Abnormalities in Children and Adolescent with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Sowell, E. R. Lancet 362, 1699–707 (2003).
- Responses of Neurons to an Amplitude Modulated Microwave Stimulus. Beasond and Semm. Neuroscience Letters 333(3):175-8 (2002).
- DNA Damage in Molt-4 T-lymphoblastoid Cells Exposed to Cellular Telephone Radiofrequency Fields In Vitro. Phillips, et al. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, 45:1, 103-105 (1998).
- Acute Low-Intensity Microwave Exposure Increases DNA Single-Strand Breaks in Rat Brain Cells. Lai, et al. Bioelectromagnetics 16(3):207-10 (1995).
- Radiofrequency Microwave Radiation Biological Effects and Safety Standards: A Review. Bolen, S. Rome Laboratory, Air Force Materiel Command, Griffiss Air Force Base, New York (1994).
- Influence of Weak Non-Thermic High-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on the Membrane Potential of Nerve Cells. Kullnick, et al. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 27:3, 293-304 (1991).
Databases of Peer-Reviewed Research Studies
PowerWatch has been researching the links between EMF and health risks for more than 25 years. As of October 2018, their internal database contained approximately 15,000 scientific papers, most of which address EMF radiation. The organization, which is completely independent of government and industry, gathers information to help the lay person understand this issue. PowerWatch recently added a search engine to its website which enables the user to search specific fields in their database for specified time periods.
EMF-Portal.org has a searchable database of over 10,000 scientific studies, review papers, reports from conferences (e.g., IEEE), and books on the effects of electro-magnetic radiation. Each entry has at least the citation, and some have links to PubMed and/or the original scientific journal. A search for the word “radiation” yielded 10,263 articles as of April 14, 2020. The website is available in English and German languages.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. This database is not limited to EMR-related research; rather, it aims to be as comprehensive as possible in referencing all scientific study literature available. The search and advanced search features work pretty well, and the “related articles” alongside search results are often helpful.
The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) Study
The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) reports to the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), which is one of 27 Institutes in the US National Institutes of Health (NIH).
The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) Study on Cell Phone Radiation found “clear evidence” of cancer, heart damage and DNA damage in a 14-year, $30-million study designed to test the basis for federal safety limits (NIEHS 2018). The heart and brain cancers found in the NTP study rats are the same cell type as tumors that researchers have found to be increased in humans who have used cell phones for over 10 years. Thus, researchers say this animal evidence confirms the human evidence associating the exposure to cancer. (Hardell 2019)
“The findings of highly malignant and quite rare brain tumors and malignant Schwann cell tumors of the heart in the NTP study present a major public health concern because some of these same types of tumors had been reported in epidemiological studies of adult cellphone users. In addition, the NTP reported DNA damage was induced in brain cells of exposed animals.” ~ Ronald Melnick, PhD, Commentary on the NTP Study
May 2016 Draft Report of Partial Findings from the National Toxicology Program Carcinogenesis Studies of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation in Hsd: Sprague-Dawley® SD rats (Whole Body Exposures)
Dr. Ronald Melnick, lead designer of the NTP study of cell phone radiation, discusses the design of the study and its conclusion
The Ramazzini Institute Study
The Ramazzini Study confirmed the results of the NTP Study, using a larger number of test animals, and testing far field (cell tower) rather than near field (cell phone) EMF radiation exposure.
Ramazzini Study on Radiofrequency Cell Phone Radiation: The World’s Largest Animal Study on Cell Tower Radiation Confirms Cancer Link
The Ramazzini study exposed 2448 Sprague-Dawley rats from prenatal life until their natural death to “environmental” cell tower radiation for 19 hours per day (1.8 GHz GSM radiofrequency radiation (RFR) of 5, 25 and 50 V/m). RI exposures mimicked base station emissions like those from cell tower antennas, and exposure levels were far less than those used in the NTP studies of cell phone radiation.
“All of the exposures used in the Ramazzini study were below the US FCC limits. These are permissible exposures according the FCC. In other words, a person can legally be exposed to this level of radiation. Yet cancers occurred in these animals at these legally permitted levels. The Ramazzini findings are consistent with the NTP study demonstrating these effects are a reproducible finding,” explained Ronald Melnick PhD, formerly the Senior NIH toxicologist who led the design of the NTP study on cell phone radiation now a Senior Science Advisor to Environmental Health Trust (EHT). “Governments need to strengthen regulations to protect the public from these harmful non-thermal exposures.”
“This study raises concerns that simply living close to a cell tower will pose threats to human health. Governments need to take measures to reduce exposures from cell tower emissions. Cell towers should not be near schools, hospitals or people’s homes. Public health agencies need to educate the public on how to reduce exposure from all sources of wireless radiofrequency radiation—be it from cell towers or cell phones or Wi-Fi in schools,” stated David O. Carpenter MD, former Dean of the School of Public Health at the University at Albany. “This is particularly urgent because of current plans to place small 5G cell towers about every 300 meters in every street across the country. These 5G ‘small cell’ antennas will result in continuous exposure to everyone living nearby and everyone walking down the street. The increased exposures will increase risk of cancer and other diseases such as electro-hypersensitivity.”
Dr Fiorella Belpoggi discusses the design and results of the Ramazzini Study of the Health Effects of Far-Field RF Radiation compared to the NTP Study
The BioInitiative Report 2012
The BioInitiative Report 2012
A Rationale for Biologically-based Public Exposure Standards for Electromagnetic Fields (ELF and RF). The overall report contains many chapters, each referencing many to hundreds of studies. The chart below reflects a small selection of the referenced studies.
Additional Studies of Interest
Martin L Pall, PhD ~ Eight Distinct Types of Great Harm Caused by Electromagnetic Field Exposures and the Mechanisms that Cause Them ~ Overview from 1971 to 2018
Early Cell Tower Studies ~ Specific Health Symptoms and Cell Phone Radiation in Selbitz (Bavaria, Germany)—Evidence of a Dose-Response Relationship
Early studies are valuable because they were done before general adoption of cell phones, so because cell phone towers were not so pervasive, it was possible to document symptoms correlated to distance from a specific cell tower, and it was also possible to find control groups not exposed to cell tower microwave radiation. We intend to list more of these studies.